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    146期白小姐传密:中科院博士考试大纲

    中国科学院大学博士研究生入学考试英语考试大纲
    · 招生办公室
    · 2014年11月21日
    考试对象
    报考中国科学院大学各单位(具体指中国科学院所属各研究院、所、中心、园、台、站及校部各直属院系)相关专业拟攻读博士学位的考生。
    考试目的
    检验考生是否具有进入攻读博士学位阶段的英语水平和能力。
    考试类型、考试内容及考试结构
    本考试共有五个部分:词汇(占10%)、完形填空(占15%)、阅读理解(占40%)、英译汉(占15%),写作(占20%)。试卷分为:试卷一(Paper One)客观试题,包括前三个部分,共75题,顺序排号;试卷二(Paper Two)主观试题,包括英译汉和写作两个部分。
    一、词汇
    主要测试考生是否具备一定的词汇量和根据上下文对词和词组意义判断的能力。词和词组的测试范围基本以本考试大纲词汇表为参照依据。共20题。每题为一个留有空白的英文句子。要求考生从所给的四个选项中选出可用在句中的最恰当词或词组。
    二、完形填空
    主要测试考生在语篇层次上的理解能力以及对词汇表达方式和结构掌握的程度??忌哂薪柚诖驶?、句法及上下文线索对语言进行综合分析和应用的能力。要求考生就所给篇章中15处空白所需的词或短语分别从四个选项中选出最佳答案。
    三、阅读理解
    本部分共分两节。要求考生能:
    1)掌握中心思想、主要内容和具体细节;
    2)进行相关的判断和推理;
    3)准确把握某些词和词组在上下文中的特定含义;
    4)领会作者观点和意图、判断作者的态度。
    A节:主要测试考生在规定时间内通过阅读获取相关信息的能力??忌胪瓿?800-2000词的阅读量并就题目从四个选项中选出最佳答案。
    B节:主要测试考生对诸如连贯性和一致性等语段特征的理解??忌胪瓿?00-900词的阅读量(2篇短文),并根据每篇文章(约400词)的内容,从文后所提供的6段文字中选择能分别放进文章中5个空白处的5段。
    四、英译汉
    要求考生将一篇近400词的英语短文中有下划线的5个句子翻译成汉语。主要测试考生是否能从语篇的角度正确理解英语原句的意思,并能用准确、达意的汉语书面表达出来。
    五、写作
    要求考生按照命题、所给提纲或背景图、表写出一篇不少于200字的短文。目的是测试考生用英语表达思想或传递信息的能力及对英文写作基础知识的实际运用。
    考试时间及计分
    考试时间总计为180分钟,其中试卷一为110分钟,试卷二为70分钟。卷面总分100分。详见下表:
    试卷一:
        
    题号
          
    名称
          
    题量
          
    分值
          
    时间(分钟)
           
    I
          
    词汇选择填空
          
    20
          
    10
          
    15
           
    II
          
    完形填空
          
    15
          
    15
          
    15
           
    III-A
          
    阅读理解(A)
          
    30
          
    30
          
    60
           
    III-B
          
    阅读理解(B)
          
    10
          
    10
          
    20
           
    小计
          
          
    75
          
    65
          
    110分钟
      
    试卷二:
        
    题号
          
    名称
          
    题量
          
    分值
          
    时间(分钟)
           
    IV
          
    英译汉–语篇中句子
          
    5
          
    15
          
    30
           
    V
          
    写作
          
    1
          
    20
          
    40
           
    小计
          
          
    6
          
    35
          
    70分钟
      
    SAMPLE TEST
    UNIVERSITY OFCHINESE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
    ENGLISH ENTRANCEEXAMINATION
    FOR
    DOCTORAL CANDIDATES
    PAPER ONE
    PART I VOCABULARY (15 minutes, 10 points, 0.5 point each)
    DirectionsChoosethe word or expression below each sentence that best completes the statement,and mark the corresponding letter of your choice with a single bar across thesquare brackets on your Machine-scoring Answer Sheet.
    1. Ten years ago, ahouse with a decent bathroom was a __________ symbol among universityprofessors.
    A.post                B. status
    C.position                 D. place
    2. It would be farbetter if collectors could be persuaded to spend their time and money insupport of ___________ archaeological research.
    A.legible              B. legitimate
    C.legislative             D. illicit
    3. We seek asociety that has at its __________ a respect for the dignity and worth of theindividual.
    A.end               B. hand
    C. core              D. best 
    4. A variety ofproblems have greatly _________the country’s normal educational development.
    A.impeded            B.imparted
    C.implored             D. implemented
    5. A good educationis an asset you can ________for the rest of your life.
    A.spellout             B.call upon
    C.fallover             D.resort to
    6. Oil can change asociety more ____________ than anyone could ever have imagined.
    A.grossly              B. severely
    C.rapidly              D. drastically 
    7. Beneath itsmyriad rules, the fundamental purpose of ___________ is to make the world apleasanter place to live in, and you a more pleasant person to live with.
    A.elitism                  B.eloquence   
    C.eminence             D. etiquette
    8. The NewTestament was not only written in the Greek language, but ideas derived fromGreek philosophy were _____________ in many parts of it.
    A.altered              B. criticized
    C.incorporated             D. translated
    9. Nobody will everknow the agony I go __________ waiting for him to come home.
    A. over                              B. with
    C. down                                  D. through
    10. While a country’s economy is becomingthe most promising in the world, its people should be more ____________ abouttheir quality of life.
    A.discriminating        B. distributing
    C.disagreeing           D.disclosing
    11. Cheated by twoboys whom he had trust on, Joseph promised to ____________ them.
    A. find faultwith                                  B. make the most of
    C. look downupon                                         D. get even with
    12. The Minister’s _________ answer letto an outcry from the Opposition.
    A. impressive           B. evasive
    C. intensive            D. exhaustive
    13. In proportionas the ____________ between classes within the nation disappears the hostilityof one nation to another will come to an end.
    A.intolerance             B. pessimism
    C.injustice            D. antagonism
    14. Everyone doestheir own thing, to the point where a fifth-grade teacher can’t __________ on afourth-grade teacher having taught certain things.
    A.count                                                         B. insist
    C.fall                                                             D. dwell
    15. When the firebroke out in the building, the people lost their __________ and ran into theelevator.
    A.hearts               B. tempers
    C.heads                D. senses
    16. Consumersdeprived of the information and advice they needed were quite simply___________ every cheat in the marketplace.
    A. at the mercyof          B. in lieu of
    C. by courtesyof        D. for the price of
    17. In fact thepurchasing power of a single person’s pension in Hong Kong was only 70 percent of the value of the _________ Singapore pension.
    A.equivalent            B.similar
    C.consistent            D.identical
    18. He became awarethat he had lost his audience since he had not been able to talk ____________.
    A. honestly             B. graciously   
    C.coherently            D.flexibly
    19. The novel,which is a work of art, exists not by its _____________ life, but by itsimmeasurable difference from life.
    A. significance in         B. imagination at
    C. resemblanceto        D. predominance over
    20. She was artfuland could always ____________ her parents in the end.
    A. shoutdown            B. getround    
    C. complywith              D. pass over
    PART II  CLOZETEST   (15 minutes, 15 points)
    Directions: For eachblank in the following passage, choose the best answer from the four choicesgiven in the opposite column. Mark the corresponding letter of your choice witha single bar across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring Answer Sheet.
    We are entering aperiod in which rapid population growth, the presence of deadly weapons, anddwindling resources will bring international tensions to dangerous levels foran extended period. Indeed,  21  seems no reason forthese levels of danger to subside unless population equilibrium is  22 andsome rough measure of fairness reached in the distribution of wealth amongnations.  23  of adequate magnitude imply awillingness to redistribute income internationally on a more generous 24  thanthe advanced nations have evidenced within their own  domains. Therequired increases in 25  in the backward regionswould  necessitate gigantic applications of energy merely to extract the 26  resources. 
    It is uncertainwhether the requisite energy-producing technology exists, and moreserious,  27 that its application would bring us to thethreshold of an irreversible change in climate   28  aconsequence of the enormous addition of manmade heat to the atmosphere. It isthis  29  problem that poses the most demanding anddifficult of the challenges. The existing  30  ofindustrial growth, with no allowance for increased industrialization to repairglobal poverty, hold  31   the risk of enteringthe danger zone of climatic change in as  32  asthree or four generations. If the trajectory is in fact pursued, industrialgrowth will   33   have to come to animmediate halt, for another generation or two along that  34  wouldliterally consume human, perhaps all life. The terrifying outcome can bepostponed only to the extent that the wastage of heat can be reduced,  35  thattechnologies that do not add to the atmospheric heat burden—for example, the useof solar energy—can be utilized. (1996)
    21. A.one    B. it         C.this          D. there
    22. A. achieved  B. succeeded      C.produced       D. executed
    23. A.Transfers     B. Transactions   C. Transports    D. Transcripts
    24. A. extent    B. scale          C.measure        D. range
    25. A.outgrowth  B. outcrop        C.output         D. outcome
    26. A.needed     B. needy      C.needless       D. needing
    27. A.possible      B. possibly       C.probable       D. probably
    28. A.in         B. with          C. as       D. to
    29. A.least      B. late          C. latest       D. last
    30. A.race       B. pace          C.face          D. lace
    31. A. on       B. up            C.down          D. out
    32. A.less       B. fewer         C. many         D. little
    33. A.rather     B. hardly        C. then          D. yet
    34. A.line       B.move           C. drive        D. track
    35. A.if         B.or         C. while        D. as
    PART III    READING COMPREHENSION   
    Section A  (60minutes, 30 points)
    DirectionsBeloweach of the following passages you will find some questions or incompletestatements. Each question or statement is followed by four choices marked A, B,C, and D. Read each passage carefully, and then select the choice that bestanswers the question or completes the statement. Mark the letter of your choicewith a single bar across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring AnswerSheet.
    Passage 1
    The writing of ahistorical synthesis involves integrating the materials available to thehistorian into a comprehensible whole. The problem in writing a historicalsynthesis is how to find a pattern in, or impose a pattern upon, the detailedinformation that has already been used to explain the causes for a historicalevent.
    A synthesis seeks common elements in which to interpret the contingent parts ofa historical event. The initial step, therefore, in writing a historicalsynthesis, is to put the event to be synthesized in a proper historicalperspective, so that the common elements or strands making up the event can bedetermined. This can be accomplished by analyzing the historical event as partof a general trend or continuum in history. The common elements that arefamiliar to the event will become the ideological framework in which thehistorian seeks to synthesize. This is not to say that any factor will not havea greater relative value in the historian’s handling of the interrelated whenviewed in a broad historical perspective.
    The historian, insynthesizing, must determine the extent to which the existing hypotheses havesimilar trends. A general trend line, once established, will enable thesesimilar trends to be correlated and paralleled within the conceptual frameworkof a common base. A synthesis further seeks to determine, from existinghypotheses, why an outcome took the direction it did; thus, it necessitatesreconstructing the spirit of the times in order to assimilate the political,social, psychological, etc., factors within a common base.
    As such, thesynthesis becomes the logical construct in interpreting the common groundbetween an original explanation of an outcome (thesis) and the reinterpretationof the outcome along different lines (antithesis). Therefore, the synthesisnecessitates the integration of the materials available into a comprehensiblewhole which will in turn provide a new historical perspective for the eventbeing synthesized.  
    36. The authorwould mostly be concerned with _____________.
    A. finding the mostimportant cause for a particular historical event
    B. determining whenhypotheses need to be reinterpreted
    C. imposing apattern upon varying interpretations for the causes of a particular historicalevent
    D. attributing manyconditions that together lead to a particular historical event or to singlemotive
    37. The mostimportant preliminary step in writing a historical synthesis would be ____________.
    A. to accumulatesufficient reference material to explain an event
    B. analyzing thehistorical event to determine if a “single theme theory” apples to the event
    C. determining thecommon strands that make up a historical event
    D. interpretinghistorical factors to determine if one factor will have relatively greatervalue
    38. The bestdefinition for the term “historical synthesis” would be ______________.
    A. combiningelements of different material into a unified whole
    B. a tentativetheory set forth as an explanation for an event
    C. the directopposite of the original interpretation of an event
    D. interpretinghistorical material to prove that history repeats itself
    39. A historianseeks to reconstruct the “spirit” of atime period because ____________.
    A. the events inhistory are more important than the people who make history
    B. existinghypotheses are adequate in explaining historical events
    C. this is the bestmethod to determine the single most important cause for a particular action
    D. varying factorscan be assimilated within a common base
    40. Which of thefollowing statements would the author consider false?
    A. One factor in ahistorical synthesis will not have a greater value than other factors.
    B. It is possibleto analyze common unifying points in hypotheses.
    C. Historicalevents should be studied as part of a continuum in history.
    D. A synthesisseeks to determine why an outcome took the direction it did.
    Passage 2
    When you call thepolice, the police dispatcher has to locate the car nearest you that is free torespond. This means the dispatcher has to keep track of the status and locationof every police car—not an easy task for a large department.
    Another problem, which arises when cars are assigned to regular patrols, is thatthe patrols may be too regular. If criminals find out that police cars willpass a particular location at regular intervals, they simply plan their crimesfor times when no patrol is expected. Therefore, patrol cars should pass by anyparticular location at random times; the fact that a car just passed should beno guarantee that another one is not just around the corner. Yet simplyordering the officers to patrol at random would lead to chaos.
    A computerdispatching system can solve both these problems. The computer has no troublekeeping track of the status and location of each car. With this information, itcan determine instantly which car should respond to an incoming call. And withthe aid of a pseudorandom number generator, the computer can assign routinepatrols so that criminals can’t predict just when a police car willpass through a particular area.
    (Before computers,police sometimes used roulette wheels and similar devices to make randomassignments.)
    Computers also canrelieve police officers from constantly having to report their status. Thepolice car would contain a special automatic radio transmitter and receiver.The officer would set a dial on this unit indicating the current status of thecar—patrolling,directing traffic, chasing a speeder, answering a call, out to lunch, and soon. When necessary, the computer at headquarters could poll the car for itsstatus. The voice radio channels would not be clogged with cars constantlyreporting what they were doing. A computer in the car automatically coulddetermine the location of the car, perhaps using the LORAN method. The locationof the car also would be sent automatically to the headquarters computer.
    41. The best titlefor this passage should be ___________.
    A. Computers andCrimes
    B. Patrol CarDispatching
    C. The PowerfulComputers
    D. The Police withModern Equipment
    42. A policedispatcher is NOT supposed to _____________.
    A. locate everypatrol car
    B. guarantee carson regular patrols
    C. keep in touchwith each police car
    D. find out whichcar should respond to the incoming call
    43. If the patrolsare too regular, _____________.
    A. the dispatcherswill be bored with it
    B. the officers maybecome careless 
    C. the criminalsmay take advantage of it
    D. the streets willbe in a state of chaos
    44. The computerdispatching system is particularly good at ______________.
    A. assigning carsto regular patrols
    B. responding tothe incoming calls         
    C. orderingofficers to report their location
    D. making routinepatrols unpredictable
    45. According tothe account in the last paragraph, how can a patrol car be located withoutcomputers?
    A. Police officersreport their status constantly.
    B. The headquarterspoll the car for its status.
    C. A radiotransmitter and receiver is installed in a car.
    D. A dial in thecar indicates its current status.
    Passage 3
    A child who hasonce been pleased with a tale likes, as a rule, to have it retold inidentically the same words, but this should not lead parents to treat printedfairy stories as sacred texts. It is always much better to tell a story thanread it out of a book, and, if a parent can produce what, in the actualcircumstances of the time and the individual child, is an improvement on the printedtext, so much the better.
    A charge madeagainst fairy tales is that they harm the child by frightening him or arousinghis sadistic impulse. To prove the latter, one would have to show in acontrolled experiment that children who have read fairy stories were more oftenguilty of cruelty than those who had not. Aggressive, destructive, sadisticimpulses every child has and, on the whole, their symbolic verbal dischargeseem to be rather a safety valve than an incitement to overt action. As tofears, there are, I think, well-authenticated cases of children beingdangerously terrified by some fairy story. Often, however, this arises from thechild having heard the story once. Familiarity with the story by repetitionturns the pain of fear into the pleasure of a fear faced andmastered.                                    
    There are alsopeople who object to fairy stories on the grounds that they are not objectivelytrue, that giants, witches, two-headed dragons, magic carpets, etc., do notexist; and that, instead of indulging his fantasies in fairy tales, the childshould be taught how to adapt to reality by studying history and mechanics. Ifind such people, I must confess, so unsympathetic and peculiar that I do notknow how to argue with them. If their case were sound, the world should be fullof madmen attempting to fly from New York to Philadelphia on a broomstick orcovering a telephone with kisses in the belief that it was their enchantedgirl-friend.
    No fairy story everclaimed to be a description of the external world and no sane child has everbelieved that it was.
    46. According tothe author, the best way to retell a story to a child is to ______________.
    A. tell it in acreativeway            
    B. take from itwhat the child likes
    C. add to itwhatever at hand
    D. read it out ofthe story book.
    47. In the secondparagraph, which statement best expresses the author’s attitude towardsfairy stories?
    A. He sees in themthe worst of human nature.
    B. He dislikeseverything about them.
    C. He regards themas more of a benefit than harms.
    D. He is expectantof the experimental results.
    48. According tothe author, fairy stories are most likely to ____________.
    A. make childrenaggressive the whole life
    B. incitedestructiveness in children
    C. function as asafety valve for children
    D. add children’s enjoyment of crueltyto others
    49. If the childhas heard some horror story for more than once, according to the author, hewould probably be______________.           
    A. scared to death
    B. taking it andeven enjoying it
    C. suffering morethe pain of fear
    D. dangerouslyterrified
    50. The author’s mention ofbroomsticks and telephones is meant to emphasize that ___________.
    A. old fairystories keep updating themselves to cater for modern needs
    B. fairy storieshave claimed many lives of victims
    C. fairy storieshave thrown our world into chaos
    D. fairy storiesare after all fairy stories
    Passage 4
    There has been alot of hand-wringing over the death of Elizabeth Steinberg. Without blaminganyone in particular, neighbors, friends, social workers, the police andnewspaper editors have struggled to define the community’s responsibility toElizabeth and to other battered children. As the collective soul-searchingcontinues, there is a pervading sense that the system failed her.
    The fact is, in NewYork State the system couldn’t have saved her. It is almostimpossible to protect a child from violent parents, especially if they arewhite, middle-class, well-educated and represented by counsel.
    Why does the statepermit violence against children? There are a number of reasons. First,parental privilege is a rationalization. In the past, the law was giving itsapproval to the biblical injunction against sparing the rod.
    Second, whileeveryone agrees that the state must act to remove children from their homeswhen there is danger of serious physical or emotional harm, many childadvocates believe that state intervention in the absence of serious injury ismore harmful than helpful.
    Third, courts andlegislatures tread carefully when their actions intrude or threaten to intrudeon a relationship protected by the Constitution. In 1923, the Supreme Courtrecognized the “libertyof parent and guardian to direct the upbringing and education of children undertheir control.” More recently, in 1977, it upheld theteacher’s privilege to use corporal punishment againstschoolchildren. Read together, these decisions give the constitutionalimprimatur to parental use of physical force.
    Under the bestconditions, small children depend utterly on their parents for survival. Underthe worst, their dependency dooms them. While it is questionable whether anyoneor anything could have saved Elizabeth Steinberg, it is plain that the lawprovided no protection.
    To the contrary, byjustifying the use of physical force against children as an acceptable methodof education and control, the law lent a measure of plausibility and legitimacyto her parents’conduct.
    More than 80 yearsago, in the teeth of parental resistance and Supreme Court doctrine, the NewYork State Legislature acted to eliminate child labor law. Now, the state mustact to eliminate child abuse by banning corporal punishment. To break the cycleof violence, nothing less will answer. If there is a lesson to be drawn fromthe death of Elizabeth Steinberg, it is this: spare the rod and spare thechild.  
    51. The New YorkState law seems to provide least protection of a child from violent parents of____________.
    A. a family onwelfare               
    B. a pooruneducated family
    C. an educatedblackfamily              
    D. a middle-classwhite family
    52. “Sparing the rod” (in boldface) means ____________.
    A. spoilingchildren                     
    B. punishingchildren
    C. not caring aboutchildren              
    D. not beatingchildren
    53. Corporalpunishment against schoolchildren is _____________.
    A. taken as illegalin the New York State  
    B. considered beingin the teacher’sprovince 
    C. officiallyapproved by law
    D. disapproved byschool teachers  
    54. From thearticle we can infer that Elizabeth Steinberg is probably the victim of____________.
    A. teachers’ corporalpunishment           
    B. misjudgment ofthe court
    C. parents’ill-treatment                  
    D. street violence
    55. The writer ofthis article thinks that banning corporal punishment will in the long run_____________.
    A. prevent violenceof adults
    B. save morechildren
    C. protect childrenfromill-treatment              
    D. better thesystem
    Passage 5
    With its commoninterest in lawbreaking but its immense range of subject-matter andwidely-varying methods of treatment, the crime novel could make a legitimateclaim to be regarded as a separate branch of literature, or, at least, as adistinct, even though a slightly disreputable, offshoot of the traditionalnovel.
    The detective storyis probably the most respectable (at any rate in the narrow sense of the word)of the crime species. Its creation is often the relaxation of universityscholars, literary economists, scientists or even poets. Disastrous deaths mayoccur more frequently and mysteriously than might be expected in politesociety, but the world in which they happen, the village, seaside resort,college or studio, is familiar to us, if not from our own experience, at leastin the newspaper or the lives of friends. The characters, though normallyrealized superficially, are as recognizably human and consistent as our lessintimate acquaintances. A story set in a more remote African jungle or Australianbush, ancient China or gas-lit London, appeals to our interest in geography orhistory, and most detective story writers are conscientious in providing areasonably true background. The elaborate, carefully-assembled plot, despisedby the modern intellectual critics and creators of “significant” novels, has found refuge in the murder mystery, with its sprinklingof clues, its spicing with apparent impossibilities, all with appropriatesolutions and explanations at the end. With the guilt of escapism from reallife nagging gently, we secretly take delight in the unmasking of evil by avaguely super-human detective, who sees through and dispels the cloud ofsuspicion which has hovered so unjustly over the innocent.
    Though its villainalso receives his rightful deserts, the thriller presents a less comfortableand credible world. The sequence of fist fights, revolver duels, car crashesand escapes from gas-filled cellars exhausts the reader far more than the hero,who, suffering from at least two broken ribs, one black eye, uncountablebruises and a hangover, can still chase and overpower an armed villain with thephysique of a wrestler, He moves dangerously through a world of ruthless gangs,brutality, a vicious lust for power and money and, in contrast to the detectivetale, with a near-omniscient arch-criminal whose defeat seems almostaccidental. Perhaps we miss in the thriller the security of being safely led byour imperturbable investigator past a score of red herrings and blind avenuesto a final gathering of suspects when an unchallengeable elucidation of allthat has bewildered us is given and justice and goodness prevail. All that wevainly hope for from life is granted vicariously.
    56. The crime novelis regarded by the author as _________________.
    A. a notrespectable form of the traditional novel
    B. not a true novelat all
    C. related in someways to the historical novel
    D. a distinctbranch of the traditional novel
    57. The creation ofdetective stories has its origin in _______________.
    A. seeking restfrom work or worries
    B. solvingmysterious deaths in this society
    C. restoringexpectations in polite society
    D. preventingcrimes
    58. The charactersof the detective stories are, generally speaking, _____________.
    A. more profoundthan those of the traditional novels
    B. as real as lifeitself
    C. not like humanbeings at all
    D. not veryprofound but not unlikely
    59. The setting ofthe detective stories is sometimes in a more remote place because ___________.
    A. it is more real
    B. our friends arefamiliar with it
    C. it pleases thereaders in a way
    D. it needs thereaders’support
    60. The writer ofthis passage thinks _____________.
    A. what people hopefor from life can finally be granted if they have confidence
    B. people like tofeel that justice and goodness will always triumph
    C. they know in thereal world good does not prevail over evil
    D. their hopes inlife can only be fulfilled through fiction reading
    Passage 6
    Whenever we areinvolved in a creative type of activity that is self-rewarding, a feelingovercomes us—afeeling that we can call “flow.” When we are flowing we lose all sense of time and awareness of whatis happening around us; instead, we feel that everything is going just right.
    A rock dancerdescribes his feeling of flow like this: “If I have enough space, I feel I canradiate an energy into the atmosphere. I can dance for walls, I dance forfloors. I become one with the atmosphere.” “You are inan ecstatic state to such a point that you don’t exist,” says a composer, describing how he feels when he “flows.” Players of any sport throughout theworld are familiar with the feeling of flow; they enjoy their activity verymuch, even though they can expect little extrinsic reward. The same holds truefor surgeons, cave explorers, and mountain climbers.
    Flow provides asort of physical sensation along with an altered state of being. One man put itthis way: “Yourbody feels good and awake all over. Your energy is flowing.” People who flow feel part of this energy; that is, they are soinvolved in what they are doing that they do not think of themselves as beingseparate from their activity. They are flowing along with their enjoyment.Moreover, they concentrate intensely on their activity. They do not try toconcentrate harder, however; the concentration comes automatically. A chessplayer compares this concentration to breathing. As they concentrate, thesepeople feel immersed in the action, lost in the action. Their sense of time isaltered and they skip meals and sleep without noticing their loss. Sizes andspaces also seem altered: successful baseball players see and hit the ball somuch better because it seems larger to them. They can even distinguish the seamson a ball approaching them at 165 kilometers per hour.
    It seems then thatflow is a “floatingaction” in which the individual is aware of his actionsbut not aware of his awareness. A good reader is so absorbed in his book thathe knows he is turning the pages to go on reading, but he does not notice he isturning these pages. The moment people think about it, flow is destroyed, sothey never ask themselves questions such as “Am I doingwell?” or “Did everyone see myjump?”
    Finally, to flowsuccessfully depends a great deal on the activity itself; not too difficult toproduce anxiety, not too easy to bring about boredom; challenging, interesting,fun. Some good examples of flow activities are games and sports, reading,learning, working on what you enjoy, and even day-dreaming.
    61. What is themain purpose of the article?
    A. to illustratethe feeling of “flow”
    B. to analyze thecauses of a special feeling
    C. to define thenew psychological term “flow”
    D. to lead peopleto acquire the feeling of “flow”
    62. In thisarticle, “flow” refers to a feeling which probably results from _____________.
    A.awareness        
    B. ecstasy
    C.unconsciousness      
    D. self-rewarding
    63. The word “immersed” (in boldface) is closest in meaning to _____________.
    A. occupied         
    B. engrossed
    C.soaked        
    D. committed
    64. What does oneusually act while “flowing” in reading?
    A. thinks what heis doing
    B. wonders how fasthe can read
    C. turns the pages
    D. minds the pagenumber
    65. The activitywhich can successfully bring about “flow” is mostprobably ____________.
    A.gripping         
    B. difficult
    C.boring            
    D. easy
    Section B ( 20minutes, 10 points)
    Direction: In eachof the following passages, five sentences have been removed from the originaltext. They are listed from A to F and put below the passage. Choose the mostsuitable sentence from the list to fill in each of the blanks (numbered 66 to75). For each passage, there is one sentence that does not fit in any of theblanks. Mark your answers on your machine scoring Answer Sheet.
    Passage 1
    A history of longand effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, itmay become a driving force. When the United States entered just such a glowingperiod after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight timeslarger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies ofscale. --- 66 --- America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams ofthe Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed.
    It was inevitablethat this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just asinevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. By the mid-1980sAmericans had found themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness.--- 67 --- By 1987 there was only one American television maker left, Zenith.(Now there is none: Zenith was bought by South Korea's LG Electronics in July.)Foreign-made cars and textiles were sweeping into the domestic market.America's machine tool industry was on the ropes. --- 68 ---
    All of this causeda crisis of confidence. Americans stopped taking prosperity for granted. Theybegan to believe that their way of doing business was failing, and that theirincomes would therefore shortly begin to fall as well. --- 69 ---Theirsometimes-sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growingcompetition from overseas.
    --- 70 ---In 1995the United States can look back on five years of solid growth while Japan hasbeen struggling. Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes asa devalued dollar or the turning of the business cycle. Self-doubt has yieldedto blind pride." American industry has changed its structure, has gone ona diet, has learnt to be more quick-witted," according to RichardCavanagh, executive dean of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government.  “It makes me proud tobe an American just to see how our businesses are improving their productivity,” says Stephen Moore of the Cato Institute, a think-tank in Washington,DC. And William Sahlman of the Harvard Business School believes that peoplewill look back on this period as" a golden age of business management inthe United States."
    A.   For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors, which America hadinvested and which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to bethe next casualty. 
    B.    Its scientists were the world's best, its workers the most skilled. 
    C.    How things have changed!
    D.   The mid-1980s brought one inquiry after another into the causes of America'sindustrial decline. 
    E.    Some huge American industries, such as consumer electronics, had shrunk orvanished in the face of foreign competition.
    F.    Some of the nation's largest businesses shrink in size when they appear on thegovernment's database of federal contractors. 
    Passage 2
    Ifsustainable competitive advantage depends on work force skills, American firmshave a problem. ---71--- Skill acquisition is considered an individualresponsibility. Labor is simply another factor of production to be hired-rentedat the lowest possible cost-much as one buys raw materials or equipment.  #ej^K |Qx  
    |i-Q
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